CORRELATION OF MAJOR FACTORS AND CO-MORBIDITIES TO ADHD (ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER): A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Author : Abhishek B. Jha, Sirin Patel, Shital Panchal

Page Nos : 1 - 12

Abstract :

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) a neurobehavioral disorder mainly occurs in pediatric age group. It is more prevalent in boys than girls. It is characterized by three common symptoms Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Impulsivity. The impairment of norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitter systems is the main cause of ADHD. There are many parameters which trigger this disease. Socio-economic factors, genetic variation, air pollution, or any co-morbid condition like mental retardation, epilepsy, Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) like factors can trigger this disease. Evidences suggested that the age group children between 9 to 11 years are more prone to incidence and/or prevalence of disease. Temperament of the individuals can also leads to ADHD in some children. Various clinical and preclinical studies confirms that the brain is the most vulnerable part of the body for most of the pollutant. Sustained exposure to the vehicular pollution can affect ADHD. There is also some association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and ADHD. The parental unipolar or bipolar affective disorder can also lead to childhood ADHD. The cytogenetic analysis shows various types of chromosomal aberrations observed in the ADHD patients. These aberrations include chromosome breaks, chromosome dicentric, and ring chromosome etc. so for effective treatment, it is necessary to prevent as well as to identify the correlation between ADHD and factors which triggered it.